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Who Killed Mary Ashford? The Case That Upheld - and Destroyed - the Right to Trial By Combat
Sutton Coldfield is a town around seven miles outside of Birmingham in the West Midlands. Founded by the Early English, it is listed in the Domesday Book as 'Sutone' and was historically held as part of the lands of the Earls of Warwick. However, the valley where Sutton Coldfield lies was particularly good for watermills and, like many other towns in the region, began to flourish as homes of industry. Birmingham was hailed as the first 'manufacturing town in the world', a bustling city full of innovation and experimentation, where small, self owned workshops specialised in producing high quality goods, often metalwork and jewellery, with a strong background of political radicalism. Coldfield was one of a number of towns rapidly expanding with new wealth, as the Industrial Revolution drew formerly rural communities to find work in urban centres.
The Death of Mary Ashford
Mary Ashford was drawn to the Sutton Coldfield area to work as a general servant and housekeeper to her uncle. He was a farmer at Langley Heath, situated between Birmingham and Sutton Coldfield, living close to her parents who lived in the village of Erdington. The few miles or so back into town to socialise would have been a common journey for Mary, and as she worked on the 26th of May, 1817, she planned to walk to Sutton to attend a dance held at a pub called The Three Tuns - although it was more commonly called the Tyburn House, and still goes by that name today. Anyone who, like me, has grown up in rural Britain will know the excitement of trekking between villages to go to pubs, events, and meet-ups to break up the week.
Mary walked to her home village to meet up with a friend, Hannah Cox, and the two got ready before walking to the pub. They arrived at about 7.30 in the evening, the dance already in full swing. Mary soon found herself drawn away from her friend to chat with a young man. Descriptions of this young man range from 'well-looking' to 'repulsive', but Mary didn't seem to mind. This was Abraham Thornton, aged around twenty four and a wealthy farmer's son from the neighbouring town of Castle Bromwich, who had asked around the dance to find out who Mary was before taking the plunge and talking to her. One of the other guests later alleged that Thornton claimed he had slept with Mary's sister a number of times before and would do the same with Mary 'or die for it'. He would always deny this statement.
Hannah Cox appeared to get fed up with being the third wheel of the evening, and decided to leave at around 11pm. Mary agreed, although Thornton decided to join the women on their walk home. The two walked with each other, leaving Cox walking behind them, when Mary told her friend that she wasn't going back to the village at all - in fact, she needed to go to her grandfather's house instead because it was closer to Langley Heath. This confused Hannah; Mary had left all her working clothes at Cox's house, so she would just have to walk back to the village in the morning anyway. Still, Hannah saw nothing amiss as she walked back to her own home, as Mary and Thornton walked off together. Hannah arrived at home about an hour later.
At about 2.45am, a labourer saw Abraham Thornton leaving the house of a friend. He was accompanied by a woman, but the labourer never saw her face.
Just before 4am, Hannah was woken up by a knocking at the door. It was Mary, coming back for her work clothes. She said that she needed to run back to the farmhouse before her uncle left for market. As she ran back to the house, a party goer from Tyburn House saw her. He was the last person known to see her alive.
At around 6am, a labourer named George Jackson was walking to work and saw women's clothing bundled in a field. A bonnet lay on the grass. A woman's shoe, covered in blood, lay near a deep pit filled with water. Calling for help, the labourer and others began the process of searching the pit. To their horror, they pulled up the corpse of Mary Ashford from the bottom. Two workers from the nearby factory searched the field near the pit. They found footprints showing that a man and a woman had travelled together up to the pit - but the man had returned alone.
Mary Ashford was quickly identified. The local mill owner went to Tyburn House to try and discover who had been with her the previous night. Daniel Clarke, the landlord, named Abraham Thornton and took it upon himself to ride to his home in Castle Bromwich, six miles away. He ran into Thornton on the road and told him immediately of Mary's death. Thornton admitted he had been with her until 4am and went willingly back to Sutton Coldfield.
Assistant constable Thomas Dales interrogated Thornton. What was asked and answered is unknown; Dales did not take any notes and didn't remember what Thornton told him. Whatever he did say was clearly not good enough, as Thornton was arrested. Put before a magistrate, William Bedford, Thornton was searched and his underwear was found to be stained with blood. He admitted to having sex with Mary the previous night, but that he did not rape her. His shoes were taken away from him and compared with the footprints in the field. It was concluded that they matched.
Meanwhile, Mary Ashford was examined by a Mr Freer, a surgeon from Birmingham. He found that she had died from drowning. There were bruises on her arms and blood present upon her 'thighs and private parts' from two lacerations on her genitals. It was decided that the blood on Thornton's clothing came from Mary being a virgin and her hymen breaking, although he also found that Mary had been on her period when she died. Either way, the blood on Thornton was explainable; the blood on Mary's shoes was not.
Thornton On Trial
An inquest into Mary's death was held on the 30th of May, 1817. In the UK, any death that is deemed violent or unnatural means must be investigated by a coroner's inquest. These were often held in public venues, such as pubs, and the public were free to attend. A coroner's court is a court of law, so witnesses are called, evidence considered, and laws governing perjury still apply. Abraham Thornton did attend the inquest and was allowed to cross-examine witnesses through his solicitor. Despite his best efforts, the coroner Francis Hacket found a verdict of 'Wilful Murder' and Thornton was committed for trial at the next assize.
In the UK now, serious crimes such as murder are held at a Crown Court that serves a particular area of jurisdiction. So, for example, I would be called to be put on trial at Lincoln Crown Court if I decided to commit any serious crimes. In the nineteenth century, serious crimes were held in the assizes which were periodic courts that moved around the country. Sets of judges would tour circuits of cities and regions, appearing in an area on a set timescale. A defendant might be waiting in gaol for a long time before the judge was next in an assize session in their area.
Luckily for Thornton, his trial was scheduled to begin on the 8th of August 1817. He was also lucky that gaol fees were abolished in 1815. The penal system was in the midst of gradual reforms but was not quite yet the Victorian penitentiary system (literally, a place designed for criminals to be penitent and think on their sins) that we might associate with the era. Gaols were still under the authority of local magistrates and were not yet uniform in standards. However, while Thornton waited for trial, public feeling against him whipped into a fever pitch. Poems, ballads, and pamphlets were quickly written and flooded the market, all convinced of his sure guilt. His solicitor tried hard to fight against them, quite rightly arguing that it was tainting the potential jury. But there was nothing to be done, and on the day of trial the public rushed the court to see the murderer be surely sent down for his wicked acts. Unfortunately for the women of Sutton Coldfield, they were not permitted to watch the trial. Due to the nature of the crime and the evidence, they would be too sensitive to listen to such things safely.
The trial lasted one day. The prosecution had a bold theory that they put to the jury. Thornton, desperate to have his way with Ashford, lay in wait for her in that field. He anticipated that she would have to cross the field to get to her uncle's home. She had tried desperately to evade him but to no avail; he caught her, threw her down, and ravished her. The evidence from the post-mortem showed that she had not eaten in over a day, so she had fainted away at such brutal treatment. Fearing the consequences of being discovered with an unconscious woman that he had so cruelly treated, Thornton threw her in the pit to drown.
Thornton's barrister was not allowed to address the jury in response.
Witnesses to Mary and Thornton's movements were called to testify. William Reader, Thornton's barrister, managed to completely pull apart the testimony of the two factory workers who had matched Thornton's shoes to the footprints in the field. They admitted that it had rained between the time the footprints were made and their attempts to get Thornton's shoes to match. Constable Dales admitted that Thornton had willingly told him about having sex with Mary before the arrest or before being searched. Mr Freer stated there were no signs of violence on Mary's body and that the two small cuts could have come from consensual sex. He was the last prosecution witness, and William Reader began to call witnesses for the defence.
Eleven witnesses, whose testimony lasted ten continuous hours, established an alibi for Thornton. Thornton had been seen by a milkman two and a half miles from the crime scene at around 2.30 am. At about 4.50 am, Thornton was seen in Castle Bromwich by a gamekeeper, John Heydon. The two men spent about fifteen minutes chatting, where Thornton admitted to being with a woman for most of the night. Reader's defence centred on the fact that if Thornton had murdered Mary, chased her down, raped her, threw her in the pit, he would then have had to travel three miles in around ten or eleven minutes - on foot - to establish an alibi with these men.
Allowing the court a short break, the judge began summing up the case for the jury - only taking about two hours on what had already been an extremely long day. He urged them to put aside their prejudices at Thornton having had sex with Mary, as they were only there to decide if he had indeed murdered her. He reminded them that Thornton had withheld no information from any figure of the law and had readily admitted everything. It was not physically possible for him to have committed the act and then be seen by the witnesses in Castle Bromwich.
The twelve men of the jury took just six minutes to declare Thornton not guilty of murder and not guilty of rape. Abraham Thornton was a free man.
Thornton's freedom did not go over well. Newspapers in the region launched hate campaigns and contributors sent money to William Ashford, brother of Mary, to pursue an appeal of the verdict. At this time, next-of-kin of the deceased could trigger a retrial by private prosecution following a murder acquittal, provided it was brought within a year and a day of the victim's death. There were certain caveats of this, but they were so rare and so unthinkable that they were ignored. Enough funds were swiftly raised and an appeal was issued on the 1st of October 1817. Thornton was rearrested and taken to London to be tried before the King's Bench. Those supporting the Ashford appeal tried to find new evidence that would prove Thornton's alibi was false, but didn't really have much luck. The case went little noted in the capital and it was presumed by many that the appeal would blow over.
However, things took a very sudden turn. William Bedford, the magistrate who had originally been part of Thornton's arrest, was the acting solicitor for the Ashford family. On the 11th of November, he wrote to his clerk:
I am sorry to say that difficulties have been started likely to occasion much trouble and perhaps ultimate defeat. it seems the Appellee [Thornton] has the option of waging Battle and of challenging the Appellor [William Ashford] in single combat which if not accepted by the Appellor the suit is lost and, if accepted, and the Appellee can hold out from sun rise to sun set, then he wins the contest and claims his discharge, otherwise his election subjects him not only to a good threshing [sic] but also the pain of death into the bargain. It is rumoured here that is the plea intended to be set up by the Def. and unless we can devise any means by arguement to induce the Court not to allow it, I am very apprehensive our poor little Knight will never be able to contend the Battle with his brutish opponent.
The one caveat to private appeal? Trial by combat. Trial by combat had been introduced into the English legal system by the Normans after their conquest of 1066. The last definite trial by battle to determine a case was in 1446, where a servant accused his master of treason. The master, overconfident in his abilities, drank a lot of wine before the battle and was killed by the servant. The law had never been changed or rectified, allowed to become just another law on the books that was a curious legal oddity. But a large crowd packed the court on the 17th of November to see Abraham Thornton call out 'Not guilty, and I am ready to defend the same with my body'. He put on one leather gauntlet. If Ashford were to take the other, it was a legal acceptance of the challenge.
One of the Ashford solicitor's argued that it was improper for a man to murder first the sister and then the brother.
Lord Chief Justice, Lord Ellenborough, responded 'It is the law of England, Mr Clarke; we must not call it murder'.
Ashford's team then argued that Ashford was young and too weak to fight, so it could not be done. William Reader said it was a waste of the court's time to argue against trial by battle but should move for the case to move forward and be dismissed. They had only resorted to a trial by battle because Ashford had stirred up 'extraordinary and unprecedented prejudice' so no fair jury could be found.
The case was adjourned to the 22nd of November.
The case dragged on to the 16th of April 1818. Ashford's team tried to push forward physical and forensic evidence against Thornton, showing the evidence pointed only to Thornton so there should be no battle; Thornton's team pushed for Ashford to accept the challenge. Finally, the appeal judges ruled on the matter. They all ruled for Thornton, holding that the evidence against him was weak enough to allow for his right to battle.
Lord Ellenborough stated that:
The discussion which has taken place here, and the consideration which has been given to the facts alleged, most conclusively show that this is not a case that can admit of no denial or proof to the contrary; under these circumstances, however obnoxious I am myself to the trial by battle, it is the mode of trial which we, in our judicial character, are bound to award. We are delivering the law as it is, and not as we wish it to be, and therefore we must pronounce our judgment, that the battle must take place.
The general law of this land is in favour of the wager of battle, and it is our duty to pronounce the law as it is, and not as we may wish it to be. Whatever prejudices may exist therefore against this mode of trial, still as it is the law of the land, the Court must pronounce judgment for it.
The case was adjourned until the 20th of April to allow Ashford to consider what he wanted to happen next - to allow Thornton to be released, or to meet him in battle.
Ashford said he would have no objection to Thornton being released. With an angry mob waiting for him, Thornton left the court through a side door, his life thoroughly ruined.
What Happened Next
In June 1819, the Lord Chancellor introduced a bill to abolish private appeals following acquittals - and to abolish trial by battle. The bill was made into an Act extremely quickly. If you know of the labyrinthine workings of British parliament, bills must be read and approved by both the House of Commons and the House of Lords and have three readings in each. Most bills are batted back and forth many, many times before being made into law. The bill was passed in one night.
Thornton tried to get back on with his life, but it was impossible. The hatred of the local community against him made living in England impossible. A new start was needed. He was booked to sail to New York but, on being discovered by the other passengers, was forced back to shore. He tried another ship and sailed to New York from Liverpool on the 30th September 1818. In the United States, he was able to become anonymous again. He married, worked as a bricklayer, and had children. Where and when he died is unknown.
William Ashford worked as a fish hawker in Birmingham and died at the age of seventy.
Mary Ashford, who had been much forgotten in all of this, was buried in the Holy Trinity Churchyard in Sutton Coldfield. Her tomb puts the blame for all of this on one person - Mary herself.
'As a warning to female virtue
And a humble monument to female Chastity,
This stone marks the grave of Mary Ashford
Who, in the twentieth year of her age,
Having incautiously repaired to a place of amusement
Without proper protection
Was brutally violated and murdered
On 27th May 1817.'
And so ended the right to trial by combat in the United Kingdom, only it does not answer the question that created the whole situation in the first place.
What do you think happened to Mary on that lonely, dark night? Was she actually murdered and raped by Thornton? Another man? Or was it just an accident caused by rushing in the dark?
If you enjoy this series, check out my profile for a link to my other historical works. I'm a disabled historian that specialises in Tudor social history, and I make video essays about the period on YouTube.
Today's CK3 Q&A with the devs, May 27th
Example: Could you have a blonde Persian?
A: Barber will be unlocked for hairstyles, hair types, hair colors and any mixture of clothing. You can be an European Duke wearing Indian Armor, or a Mongolian raider wearing crusader armor if you wish.
Q: how will CK3 address the CK2 gamey practice of waging wars for free using vassal armies only?
A: You pay the upkeep for vassal armies you raise.
Q: Will music medievalized made in our day and age be used? Or just music created during the age of the game?
A: Music for CK3 is now dynamic, reacting to player's actions. (e.g. if you begin a war, the music will change to reflect being at war). There are a lot of context cues that modify the ambient sound as well as music. Music was made to keep the immersive feeling of ruling medieval time realms.
Q: What is the funniest bug you've had to fix recently?
A: Christian Holy Order Knights were still using placeholder values from early in development, making them far stronger than they had any right to be. A small group of Knights could tear through almost any adversary, up to and including War Elephants.
Q: CK2 was always event spammy. Has CK3 introduced anything to address this?
A: When we started to develop CK2 we never considered that we would have the amount of events that we ended up with in the end of CK2 development. This meant that we were quite liberal with adding events and allowing them to fire quite often and randomly. For CK3 we were aware of the event spam problem that could barrage the players when we started development. Thus we started out to create a system to spread out the events to pace the amount of action the player has to act on. Creating a perfect system for this is hard if we want to keep the complexity but we have a lot of more systems in place to help us control it.
Q: Will CK3 be suitable for large multiplayer games ?
Q: Will other peoples aside from the Norse be able to raid overseas?
A: That is not currently planned, but can be modded
Q: Are there still ambitions in ck3 like in ck2?
A: No. The lifestyle and scheme systems replace that system.
Q: does the new coa code allow the rotation of charges?
A: Yes you can script rotated emblems and the like
Q: if a culture acquires a region-specific innovation, will it keep it if it moves to a different region?
A: Innovations are never lost once they are unlocked, the knowledge has been gained by your culture
Q: What are some ways that a character can change his or her culture?
A: Through Education or a Decision is the most common, events can change it too
Q: will CK3 address the issue of rulers hating heretics more than infidels?
A: Yes with the faith hostility setup, someone who is a hostile faith compared to just somewhat astray from yours will be disliked more
Q: When making our own religions, will we be able to make it a heresy instead of faith in its own right?
A: All Faiths are Faiths in there own right. After all, Catharism doesn't view itself as a heresy of Catholicism, it views itself as the correct, true Faith. So no, you cannot specifically create heresies, you will create a Faith and other Faiths (which may or may not include your 'parent' faith) will decide for themselves if they think your beliefs are heretical.
Q: How will empires thrive/decay?
A: Similarly to CK2 - it is all up to the top liege and their vassals on how they decide to work. The larger the realm, the harder it's to control as a single person. With added personal schemes, factions, vassal contracts and factions there is a lot more granularity as to how an empire can be controlled, or how it can be destroyed from the inside.
Q: With all the new graphic changes how do you think it impacts the preformance (yes I will ask you every dc!)
A: We've worked to make them be optimised, but if it hurts your performance too much there are options to tweak your graphics to improve perf
Q: is the ai also affected by the stress system ?
Q: how will cultures work in multiplayer games?
A: The same way they work in singleplayer. Only the Cultural Head (the ruler with the most same-culture provinces in their realm) can make decisions about that culture's Innovations, regardless of if the Head is a player or not.
Q: how will assimilation work in game
A: Culture conversion is the way to do it!
Q: Can I order my peasants to catch that huge lobster in the sea, so I can make it my pet and name it Crum Crum? :eyes: :lobster:
A: No, but your rulers can catch cancer!
Q: will there be any jokes or gags in the game, similar to glitterhoof in ck2, jan mayen from vic2, or synthetics in eu4?
A: Well if we do then telling you would spoil the fun of it :wink:
Q: Can we get a picture of the full world map (even if zoomed out completely) for CK3 so we get a better picture of how it will look?
A: That's already been shown: https://steamcdn-a.akamaihd.net/steam/apps/1158310/ss_f4099e67c32964ea38022051f44dfcb449d5b2f9.1920x1080.jpg?t=1589658240
Q: Will we be able to create our own/custom Kingom and Empire titles?
A: Yes, forming Custom Kingdoms and Empires is a thing
Q: Will Holy Orders act as more than just mercenaries?
A: Yes, you can interact with them to donate funds, request loans, or send your children off to fight for them.
Q: Will "In Taberna" be available in the game as a background song?
A: Fan favourite La Taberna will make a return. :smirk:
Q: City sprawl will be a thing ?
A: It will not be something we have for release.
Q: Will the dwarf portraits be short?
A: Yes, yes they will
Q: Good afternoon, what is the pixel size of the dynastic emblems?
Q: Will your vassals contribute knights to your army? And can i have about 100-200, or even more knights in late game?
A: Vassals will contribute standard percentage of their total levy to the army. The larger the levy for the vassal, the larger the levy for the top liege etc.
Q: what is the difference between directed and undirected Great Holy Wars?
A: A directed great holy war is more like a Jihad or pagan Great Holy War in CK2, where a temporal ruler calls for the war with the main goal of expansion to take land. Whereas an undirected one is like the Crusades, in that there is the build up phase of pledging to the war and upon victory a new independent state will be granted to a beneficiary such as making Jerusalem
Q: Is there an end date like in Imperator Rome?
A: 1453 but there is a game rule to go to any end date if you want
Q: Will there be any mythological or fantasy events or mechanics at launch? And if not, will they be implemented later on?
A: There are some mythological elements referenced in events and such, but there won't be any overtly supernatural powers or magical beings. As far as being implemented later on, that remains to be seen, we haven't discussed future expansions much since we're still focusing on the base game.
Q: how will you guys handle the fact that boat travel could not be very long concerning fresh water?
A: Troops that remain at sea for too long will eventually start taking attrition.
Q: Will ck3 have a way to 'mend a schism' between 2 related faith similar to th decision in ck2? Maybe even a way to mend the sunni/shi split?
A: There is a Decision to mend the Catholic/Orthodox split on launch. Other schisms may be mend-able in future patches.
Q: can pagan faiths be reformed multiple times? Seems possible seeing how it works similarly to faith creation and just how vast for example "poganstvo" is.
A: It can only be reformed once, but after reforming you can make a new faith based on it.
Q: How much money will titles cost?
A: Depends on the tier of the title you are forming, also the economy balance is different than CK2 so specific numbers aren't gonna translate really
Q: Will modding be as easy as it is in ck3
A: Well, yes! Modding CK3 will indeed be as easy as modding CK3. Joking aside, the game will be highly moddable.
Q: How does the "Sell Titles" function work from one of the lifestyle trees work? Will it give honorary titles to the recipent?
A: It depends on the situation, you upon taking the decision you may receive one of several events giving you a choice on how to proceed. Most involve taking a substantial hit to your prestige in exchange for a payout of gold.
Q: Most important question: CK4, when?
A: Probably some time after we release CK3, any time before that is definitely a lot less likely
Q: are there any exotic pets like tigers, lions or elephants?
A: We have pets and events for them, right now no exotic ones. :cat: :dog:
Q: If your succession law is gavelkind and you die and have multiple heirs. Will the game form more logical splits for your realm? Or will it be as much of a bordergore like ck2 succesion?
A: We've made some improvements to how the split is done which tends to produce less border gore than in CK2. Of course, border gore might still happen depending on the state of your realm, what your heirs hold, etc.
Q: Will the hair colors be locked based on ethnicity in the barber tool? For example, could I have a blonde Persian?
A: By default, hair colors will be adhering to ethnicities, but the player can use the barber tool to modify and change hairstyles and colors to whatever they want. :slight_smile:
Q: can I have blue hair ?
A: You can only choose hair colors from natural color palette.
Q: Do breakaway cultures / melting pot cultures inherit their parent cultures tech in anyway?
A: Yes. It depends on the exact situation, but they will gain some number of innovations from contributing cultures, up to and including all of them in some cases.
Q: are there more focuses for way of life?
A: There are 15 focuses
Q: Roughly how easy will it be to convert your holdings to a newly created religion?
A: Not that easy, and it depends on fervor level. If the fervor of the original religion is low, there is a higher chance for more of your counties to convert automatically than high fervor. Vice-versa, if your newly created faith garners a lot of followers and has high fervor, characters will be more eager to be convinced to join your faith. Low fervor makes it easier to reform faiths, but also is very susceptible to regular conversion.
Q: is mending the schism locked for Orthodox like in ck2 or can Catholics mend the schism aswell
A: Any Christians can attempt to mend it
Q: how easy is it to mod the portraits?
A: Modding portraits is a bit trickier than in CKII with our move to 3D, but it opens up new opportunities when it comes to making unique looking characters. Modding clothing and other attached models is a bit easier, creating a whole new character set (i.e. non-human) would be a bigger undertaking.
Q: Can we rename titles (like with the customiser dlc), dynasties, and/or cadets?
A: You can rename EVERYTHING!
Q: One common exploit in the earlier start dates of CK2(before late feudal administration an primogeniture was unlocked) to avoid the consequences of Gavelkind and elective monarchy was to convert to Islam on your character's deathbed, thus changing your government type and by that extent the laws of succession. As far as I'm aware, this exploit has no historical basis and makes no logical sense whatsoever. My question is: Will this exploit exist in CK3 or has the dev team taken steps to stop the player from pulling it off?
A: Converting to Islam won't get you out of Partition succession.
Q: will there be mansa musa and his wealthy empire or mali?
A: Mansa Musa currently falls outside of our bookmarks so he is not going to be playable from the release of the game.
Q: will ck2's supernatural elements stay in ck3 or are you going for a more realistic aproach?
A: The base game will not include any supernatural content.
Q: will there be a map map mode for claims you have or can push
A: No, but there's alerts about wars you're able to declare.
Q: Will the scars fade over time ?
A: Scars will be grevious and fresh right after getting them, but will heal over time leaving a visible mark... if you mange to survive.
Q: There will be pets, like dogs in the game, which you can name and so on. Will those have 3D models which can be seen in event screens?
A: Unfortunately we haven't had the resources to add models for our pets. I can say though that we have plenty of content related to your interactions with your beloved pets. : )
Q: there is an option to make the interface a lil smaller ? in all the videos i seen is huge
A: There is an option available to change the GUI scaling.
Q: how can i revive dead religions? lets say that as a magyar i want to return to the old ways, but im catholic, and everybody else is catholic. So how can i make it?
A: You find them in the list of all faiths and then have a real big amount of piety to be able to click the convert button and get ready to be judged by your friends, family and neighhbours
Q: How will education differ from CK2 ?
A: Education is decided for a child above 6 years old, and children will have natural inclination towards certain focuses, while struggling with others. Bossy child will excel at martial, but will have trouble with learning, for example. Having a good guardian definitely helps getting them better education too! You can change education focus once after choosing for the first time.
Q: Will we be able to rename titles?
Q: Are you guys having a nice day? (resubmit because I'm bad at bot commands)
Q: What are the system requirements
A: They are listed on the steam page etc.
Q: Is there support for vector graphics for heraldry and CoA?
A: CoA are puzzled together with .dds file elements that are up to 256x256.
Q: Can you tell if sometimes the stress are unavoidable to gain, like an unfailful wife or death of a brothel will that gain you stress depending on the personality traits ?
A: Yes, the death of a loved one often causes unavoidable Stress. Multiple deaths in quick succession can quickly lead to mental breakdowns (in a personal game, my beloved King of Bohemia turned from morally upright holier-than-thou crusader to depressed drunkard after 4 of his 5 children died of smallpox in short succession).
Q: will we be able to create new titles from exsisting like in ck2 (dutchy->kingdom, kingdom->empire)?
Q: Can you already kind of tell us what sicknesses/pandemics will be in the game?
A: The usual culprits will make their return, but will have more serious repercussions. Black death, tuberculosis etc. will pose serious threats to your health and wellbeing (as well as modify your portrait and weight!)
Q: will there be a game option to continue after the end date?
Q: what art changed the most between the first playable builds of the game and the latest ones?
A: Like all of it, from first playable in like proof of concept years ago to a couple of months out of release the graphics have changed a lot and become super beautiful
Q: What incentive is there for anyone but a cultural head to improve their learning attribute?
A: There are quite a few incentives! Learning makes it cheaper to pass new realm laws, increases monthly piety gains (used to justify holy wars), convert characters to your Faith, win skill challenges in events, etc.
Q: How will mod support work for the Game Pass Version?
A: Game Pass versions of the game can subscribe to and upload mods through the paradox mods portal.
Q: You say how easy it is to modify everything in CK3. Here is my question: Will it be possible to add vast territories to the map, for example America?
A: We have been building upon the tools that make it easier to work on the map. Modding in more or changing the resolution/area to the world is possible, adding America and keeping the old world might be more than the engine can handle and remain stable. But making a mod focused on only america should be possible, something for modders to explore.
Q: can you still break truces, and what are the consequences?
A: Of course you can. These come at hefty penalties however to your prestige level and general opinion, but there are also ways to circumvent it, such as a good diplomacy lifestyle perk or a good chancellor, who's adept at finding loopholes in truce treaties, shortening them.
Q: What is the resolution of the map files? (asking for modding purposes)
Q: How will look diseases system? If you fall sick you get specific trait of your illness, or similar to early ck2, just "ill" trait?
A: Your character portrait will reflect all the ailments and illnesses. Permanent damage, such as scars, will remain throughout that character's lifetime.
Q: How will the paper map react to changes made by modders?
A: It's a texture, so if the landmass is changed or a total overhaul made, then the modders will probably want to make their own version of the paper map.
Q: How will the clothes go from "Monarchs Journey" to CK3?
A: The ownership of the Monarch's Journey unlocks will be tied to your Paradox Account.
Q: Will you add console commands for someone who wants to chill? Like in CK2
A: There's plenty of console commands.
Q: Approximately how many cultures have unique innovations?
A: Every cultures will have access to a special Innovation that is only available to a select group of cultures. Sometimes it is completely unique to them (Scottish Schiltron, for example) while in other instances it is shared among several related cultures (such as Horse Archers).
Q: can i reform the pagan faith in ck3 ?because in ck2 i cant.( i dont mean norse or zun religion i mean the actual pagan religion)
A: You can reform pagan religions!
Q: are the technological era dates moddable?
A: They are
Q: How many achievements are there to hunt for at launch?
A: There will be more than a Pack and less than a Throng if we speak in HoMM terms. : ) That should give you a ballpark. More information on this will follow later.
Q: will i be able to make my own religion or faith of a pagan one like Hellenism, Slavic or Nordic etc
A: Reforming a Pagan faith is effectively making your own. After reformation it is also possible to make new faiths based on the reformed faith.
Q: Will there be dynamic province names in the game and is it easy to put in?
A: Yes, if you mean changing names based on culture of the holder
Q: will the Bosnian church and ossetian (alan) paganism be in at launch?
A: The Bosnian church is.
Q: What do the arrows going to your title on the map represent ? is it modable ?
A: That might be the liege-lines you're referring to, they show to whom that ruler shows allegiance, going from count, to duke, to king, to emperor. They can be visually modded.
Q: how advanced is the dog petting? I know it lowers and releases stress, but do you think it could release stress in real life? How good of a good boy are they?
A: They are very good doggos, some of the best, 13/10 at least
Q: Yesterday you mentioned holding tiers, which I've noticed in a video before. What does this mean, precisely?
A: Baronies will have general tiers, unlocked by culture innovations. They will be visually reflected on the map, as shown in the Art Dev Diary.
Q: The game's visuals are amazing, however I'm concerned about their performance impact. Is the game going to be optimized and run smoothly?
A: The game generally runs pretty smoothly, though you won't get a good frame rate if you max out the graphics setting on a weak machine.
Q: Does the offspring of parents who are from different cultures gain his culture from his upbringing or from his father or mothe
A: Culture and faith depends on upbringing of a child! You can also have that educator focus on making sure they adopt culture/faith from them if you wish.
Q: What will be start date and end date?
A: 867 CE and 1066 CE are going to be the available bookmarks. The game will go end on 1453 CE for the default ruleset which you can change to let the game continue.
Q: with what will cadet houses quarter their main houses coa?
A: The CoA of their Capital
Q: Will each pagan religion have a specific flavour to it? Like in CK2 where they have a special reformation option to choose from?
A: All Pagan religions will have a unique combination of Tenets and Doctrines which represents their beliefs. While only a few have access to unique Tenets unavailable to the others, we did a lot of work on making sure all of them feel good and different to play as.
Q: are facial features based on sliders or as numbered options for each feature like in CK2?
A: Facial features are a range rather than discrete options. Things like "has smallpox" is still boolean.
Q: How obvious is a region's supply limit?
A: It will be visible in the county menu, they will show up in the army tooltip and battle window, and moving troops into baronies with low supply limit while being above will display on the cursor.
Q: can you simultaneously reform every pagan faith if you get every pagan holy site?
A: You can only reform your own Faith. Since you cannot simultaneously belong to more than one Faith, you cannot reform every single pagan Faith simultaneously.
Q: Will there be a minus opinion hit for raising vassal levies?
A: There's an opinion hit for having offensive wars drag on.
Q: In the latest Dev Diary emblems on small Coats of Arms are shifted a bit off-center towards the bottom right corner. Could you please fix this for all of us who get easily frustrated by slightly misaligned graphics? :joy:
A: We've got our top artists pushing the pixels.
Q: Will the 876 and 1066 Startdates start on the same day as the Old Gods and Stamford Bridge Startdates in CK2, or will they start on a different day?
A: Same dates!
Q: Will Ck2 saves be compatible with CK3 and vice versa?
A: That would be impossible due to the fact of how much is changed between the different games.
Q: what are things that can happen at mental breakdowns? can this be used to cheese a suicide by always choosing stressful decisions?
A: This will be answered in a future Dev Diary
Q: Will there still be formable titles like portugal and will there be some fictional like Outreamer?
A: There will be a number of formable titles. Some that historically existed, and some that simply might've existed if history went differently.
Q: Will buildings be powerful enough to warrant their price ?
A: Definitely, and there is a lot more variety now to fully focus counties and duchies on a particular task (such as making money or producing levies and army bonuses).
Q: can we artificially raise the supply limit of a Low supply area while at war? Like using supply trains or something
A: There are ways to circumvent low supply limit, for example a Logistician trait which raises supply limit by 200%. Supply limit doesn't immediately mean that you lose troops to attrition, but low supply limit will affect advantage and, ultimately, will cause attrition.
Q: Will liege titles (i.e. King/Despot or Duke/High Chief/Petty King or Earl/Count) change according to culture?
Q: can we push multiple claims at once? De jure or fabricated.
A: Innovations will allow you be more effective in pressing multiple claims in your wars
Q: will wars not be alldestructing? and will wars be able to end via one desicive battle?
A: Warscore is calculated by the size of battles, captured prisoners of high ranking (such as primary heienemy ruler), and capturing counties that the war is for or the capital itself.
Q: Once again, why can't actual Heretics fund a Heresy? Why is it only possible for good, pious people to create a cannibalistic sex cult?
A: Nothing is stopping anyone from engaging in cannibalism and debauchery on their own. If you actually want to the clergy to consider your cannibalism and debauchery to be the will of god however, and to follow you into establishing that as a true organized religion that is embraced by hundreds of thousands of people, you need Piety. In this sense Piety represents a learnedness and ability to interpret/twist the scriptures to your will.
Q: Will the people in your cadet houses still be related with you and your house?
A: Yes, but less closely for some purposes.
Q: How will I be able to equip monarch's journey items? Will others, who did not complete the tasks still be able to see it in multiplayer?
A: You can equip the Monarch's Journey items in the barber shop as long as you are logged into your Paradox Account that unlocked them. The other players in a multiplayer game will also be able to see the unlocked items.
Q: are religions that consider each other righteous able to revolt? E.g. if I'm a Gnostic king who has lots of lands of a different type of Gnostic, would it be possible for those lands to revolt against me? Same for the schools of Islam that follow the same branch?
A: Counties that have a righteous and astray faiths will never revolt for that reason alone. While they are not forbidden from revolting, they need much more incentive to revolt than just having a different faith.
Q: Can we name wars ourselves please. Or at least more sensible/dynamic names
A: Wars are named in a way that it makes them distinct. E.g. 3rd war for Saxony, 2nd battle for Cieszyn.